Guide To Turkish Ports
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Türkiye has several ports and berthing facilities; including 10 major governement ports under privatization programs; approximately 30 small municipal piers, and more than 45 experienced private piers and ports.
The ports in Türkiye can be classified into three groups: municipal, governemental and private ports. The first group, general-purpose governemental ports,are operated by State Economic Enterprises. The Turkish State Railways (TCDD) operates Haydarpaşa (İstanbul), Derince, Bandırma, İzmir, Mersin, İskenderun and Samsun ports, all of which are connected with the railway network. The Turkish Maritime Organization (TDI) operates Trabzon and Kuşadası ports. These two State Economic Enterprises are under the control of the Ministry of transport, but they are activating as independent enterprises. In the headquarters of both organizations, there is a seperate Department of Ports which is responsible for planning and their coordination. Each individual port is managed by a Port Manager appointed by the related State Enterprise.
These ports are "full-service" ports. All the services to ship and cargo are given by the port own labour and equipment.
Main services given by the port are as follows:
*Quay occupation
*F.water supply
*Solid and liquid waste removal
*Handling services
*Rent of equipment
At present, private stevedoring is usually not allowed in state ports except congestions. The second group are municipal ports which are managed by the Municipalities. These ports are comparatively small and are general limited to a small volume of coastal traffic serving the local needs of provincial towns. The third group is made up of special private ports. These ports are mostly confined in purpose to the particular needs of industrial plant but allowed to use by third parties too. Black Sea and Mediterrenean Ports also serve as gateways to Armenia, Georgia, Iraq and Iran. Every year, there is an important quantity moving to the Middle East and Iran through Turkish Ports.

Vessels calling Turkish ports have to obtain free pratique than custom clearance to commence any operation. Embarking or disembarking is not permitted before clearence. Vessels may be cleared at anchorage or alongside, and sometimes at the straits of Dardanells and Bosphorus. Upon arrival of the vessel, the organizes the clearence party which consist of:
1 (or more) customs official
1 (or more) immigration police
1 sanitary officer
Master has to submit the following documents to the clearence party:
Copies of crew list (2 copies for police,2 copies for customs)
3 copies of provision lists (for custom)
2 copies of store and bunkers list (for custom)
In addition to fill above, manifest covering all cargo onboard are declared to the custom.
Master has to fill in and sign a declaration form for the sanitary officer. In this declaration, the master is asked to provide information on sanitary/health matters on board the vessel. Lasty, the following ship-certificates to be present to the harbour Master for inspection, to obtain outward clearence:
International certificate of tonnage (1969)
Safety equipment
Safety construction
Safety radio
International load line
Internaional oil pollution prevention
Certificate of exemption (if any)
Manning certificate
Class Certificate (For river type vessels)
Safety Manning Certificate
ISM Certificate
GMDSS Certificate
Medical Certificate
Custom officers seal the stores before disembarking until departure.In case of necessity Master has to apply to custom through agent to open the seal.

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